Raquel Fleskes

Post-Doctoral Fellow

Hometown: Maryland


  • George Washington University, B.S., Biological Anthropology. 2014;
  • PhD Program, Department of Anthropology, University of Pennsylvania (2014-21)


  • National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship Program (NSF GRFP). 2017-22.
  • Leakey Foundation Research Grant. 2020
  • University of Pennsylvania Teece Dissertation Research Fellowship, 2020.National Science Foundation (NSF) Graduate Research Internship Program (GRIP). 2019.
  • Columbian College of Arts and Sciences Distinguished Scholar Award, George Washington University. 2014.
  • Jane B. Hart Undergraduate Thesis Award, George Washington University. 2014.


  1. Alexandra E. Kralick, Janet Monge, Kate McGrath. (2021). Orangutan Canine Linear Enamel Hypoplasia Defects Assessed in Association with Flanging Status. American Journal of Physical Anthropology (Under Revision).
  2. Alexandra E. Kralick and Babette S. Zemel. (2020). Evolutionary perspectives on the developing skeleton and implications for lifelong health. Frontiers in Endocrinology. 11:99.
  3. Kate McGrath, Donald Reid, Debbie Guatelli-Steinberg, Keely Arbenz-Smith, Sireen El Zaatari, Lawrence M. Fatica, Alexandra E. Kralick, Michael R. Cranfield, Tara S. Stoinski, Timothy Bromage, Antoine Mudakikwa, Shannon C. McFarlin. (2019). Faster growth corresponds with shallower linear hypoplastic defects in great ape canines. Journal of Human Evolution. 137: 102691.
  4. Alexandra E. Kralick, M. Loring Burgess, Halszka Golwacka, Keely Arbenz-Smith, Kate McGrath, Christopher B. Ruff, King Chan, Michael R. Cranfield, Tara S. Stoinski, Timothy G. Bromage, Antoine Mudakikwa, Shannon C. McFarlin. (2017). A radiographic study of permanent molar development in wild Virunga mountain gorillas of known chronological age from Rwanda. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 163(1):129-147.

Research Interests

Alexandra studies the growth and development of sex differences in the great ape and human skeleton, and in particular, the lack of a clear sex binary. Her dissertation examines the skeletons and dentitions of two male types of orangutans, flanged and unflanged. She also studies the embodiment of gender in the human skeleton. Her previous work is on gorilla dental development and wrist bone shape. Keywords: Life History, Ontogeny, Feminist Biology, Skeletal Biology, Great Apes, Orangutans, Sexual Dimorphism.

Interests outside the lab

In her free time, Alexandra enjoys boxing and hiking with her dog.

Fun fact

Alexandra is certified in level 2 Krav Maga, an Israeli martial art.